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Facebook Libra: the inside story of how the company’s cryptocurrency dream died

On June 24 2021, Jay Powell and Janet Yellen sat down for his or her weekly breakfast amid the ­austere environment of the US Treasury constructing on 1,500 Pennsylvania Avenue. There was just one main query on the agenda: ought to they provide the inexperienced gentle for a world cryptocurrency designed by Facebook?

The chair of the Federal Reserve and the Treasury secretary had been each DC veterans; Powell had changed Yellen on the high of the Fed. But neither had needed to make such an uncommon choice. An alliance of tech corporations led by Facebook proposed to launch a product it hoped would profoundly change the world. Rather than adhering to the social media large’s one-time mantra “move fast and break things”, executives had come to Washington to ask permission first.

Powell laid out his place along with his customary precision. As Fed chair, he informed Yellen, he was prepared to offer the go-ahead for Facebook and its companions to trial Diem, because the digital foreign money backed by the US greenback was referred to as on the time. He knew the Treasury had considerations, not least the chance that such a foreign money may change into a automobile for cash laundering or develop so standard as to threaten international financial stability. But on stability, his employees thought Diem was designed fastidiously sufficient to keep away from such outcomes and would have the additional advantage of setting business requirements.

The social media firm’s repute was sullied in Washington, following a collection of controversies over information privateness, misinformation and alleged censorship. During his presidential bid the yr earlier than, Joe Biden mentioned he had “never been a big fan” of Facebook’s founder Mark Zuckerberg, describing him as “a real problem”. And outstanding Democrats and Republicans alike had already spoken out towards Diem particularly. A cautious operator, Powell wished backing from Yellen, who’s near the president and ­standard amongst progressives.

After weeks of deliberation, Yellen had made up her thoughts: she was out. “Yellen told him it was his decision to make, but that she would not protect him from the political fallout if he did so,” says one particular person briefed on the dialog. “And that was the end of Facebook’s digital currency.”

Diem’s management would spend the following six months in a last-ditch drive to rescue the venture that started by making an attempt to woo authorities regulators, then attempting to browbeat them and, in a remaining folly, exploring working with Zuckerberg’s one-time nemeses. But this January, Diem confirmed that it was winding down for good. The stays of Zuckerberg’s digital cash dream can be offered to a little-known Californian financial institution for $182mn, marking one of the spectacular, if little-noted, failures of his profession.

Over the previous few months, the Financial Times has spoken to some 30 folks concerned with the venture, together with executives, builders, lobbyists and the regulators and politicians who in the end killed it. (Many of them spoke on situation of anonymity as a result of Facebook requires workers and companions to signal non-disclosure agreements.)

What emerges is an image of Silicon Valley executives who thought they might cost into finance and make billions, if solely they might surmount technical and regulatory limitations. What they failed to understand was that the actual fact Facebook had conceived the concept, doomed it. As one authorities official concerned within the course of places it: “Diem spent years trying to reverse engineer their project to fix all of its faults. But they could never fix being linked to Facebook. It was their original sin.”

Meta, as Facebook has since been rebranded, is certainly one of a handful of tech corporations now threatened with a lot stricter regulation, even break-up, by US politicians and regulators who’ve come to see it as a malignant drive in American commerce and democracy. Nowhere has the divide between Silicon Valley and Capitol Hill been extra clearly uncovered than within the tortured downfall of Diem.


David Marcus was absorbing the Caribbean solar. It was the winter of 2017, and the dapper, French-born government was on vacation within the Dominican Republic. Marcus, 48, was the top of Facebook’s Messenger app and an in depth confidant of Zuckerberg’s. His silver hair and slick fits set him aside from his youthful, scruffier colleagues. Peers jokingly referred to as him the “George Clooney of Silicon Valley,” and he was seen as highly effective throughout the firm.

Lying on the seashore, Marcus indulged in some blue-sky considering. What if he may discover a method to create a world digital foreign money and combine it into Facebook? Marcus was no stranger to the worlds of start-ups and digital funds. He offered his first firm at 27. In 2011, a subsequent cell funds start-up he based was acquired by PayPal for $240mn. Within 9 months, he was PayPal’s president. In 2014, Zuckerberg recruited him to run Messenger, which he’d assist develop to greater than 1.3bn customers. But three years on, he was stressed.

Meanwhile, blockchain know-how and cryptocurrencies had change into helpful instruments for darkish internet criminals in addition to the lofty obsessions of programmers and utopian technologists. But they’d but to be adopted by any large firms. For Facebook’s greater than two-billion-strong consumer base, crypto may provide a handy and low-cost method to transfer cash world wide, Marcus thought.

For the social media firm itself, it may present a treasure trove of knowledge about what folks spend their cash on. Interrupting his vacation overseas, Marcus texted Zuckerberg to stipulate his ruminations. Intrigued, the CEO gave his blessing to discover the concept additional. So Marcus started methodically crafting a device beloved by Silicon Valley entrepreneurs: a memo outlining the brand new venture’s targets, defining ­success and quantifying easy methods to get there.

Morgan Beller was a 24-year-old whirlwind. Fast-talking and animated, she had been a accomplice at enterprise capital group Andreessen Horowitz earlier than becoming a member of Facebook’s company growth workforce in 2017. She was additionally a fierce blockchain advocate, who spent the latter a part of that yr attempting to buy the know-how to whichever Facebook government would pay attention: why wasn’t the corporate embracing decentralisation and open protocols for its customers? Could it get into bitcoin mining? Should Facebook teams have the ability to subject their very own digital tokens? “It’s a really big company and taking really big risks is hard,” she tells the FT. “To give Facebook credit, the leadership was very receptive and very open. I didn’t have anyone say no, at least to meeting and brainstorming.”

In early 2018, Marcus and Beller joined forces. At first, they labored in a small, empty room, partitions adorned with whiteboards, on Facebook’s important campus in Menlo Park. Soon they moved to a bigger, extra secluded constructing on the outskirts of the corporate’s headquarters. Only workers with explicit passes — the crypto specialists, engineers and economists they introduced on board — may entry the power. Their top-secret venture was codenamed Libra. The workforce was ­“paranoid about leaks”, says Beller and was “like a secret Swat operation”.

This can be the primary of a number of incarnations, every meant to adapt to the difficulties and calls for of launching a digital foreign money from inside Facebook. Initially, the dream was for Libra to be like bitcoin, a foreign money owned by nobody group and constructed on open-source know-how. This would enable people to retailer, spend and switch cash throughout borders with near zero transactio­­n charges.

Unlike bitcoin, it might be backed by one thing actual: a reserve of low-risk property together with financial institution deposits in varied currencies and US Treasuries. (This type of crypto is named stablecoin.) Facebook declined to remark. Marcus, who additionally declined to be interviewed, wrote in an announcement: “Libra was about building a protocol for money on the internet to enable people and ­businesses who are currently left behind by the current system to access sound digital money and cheap payments.”

To get the venture off the bottom — earlier than it was to change into totally decentralised — management was wanted to develop the know-how. Marcus and Beller had been acutely aware that Facebook alone shouldn’t be seen as directing the hassle. So they created a non-profit affiliation, additionally referred to as Libra, of which Facebook was to be certainly one of many members. To keep away from showing US-­centric, it might be technically based mostly in Switzerland, a extra impartial monetary centre that was additionally an rising crypto hub on the time. (Marcus and Beller continued to work primarily from California.)

The set-up proved convincing. By mid-2019, Marcus and Beller’s pitching had introduced on board some 28 corporations and non-profits, together with Uber, Vodafone, Spotify, Visa and Mastercard as founding members. Each would have equal voting rights and pay $10mn into the reserve; every would information the venture’s growth and, ultimately, combine Libra into its companies, bringing the digital coin to customers worldwide.

On high of being an equal founding member, Facebook would construct its personal digital pockets for the coin. Marcus would sit on Libra’s board but additionally run the digital pockets in a brand new Facebook subsidiary referred to as Calibra. For Facebook, the doable multibillion-dollar business alternatives had been clear: consumer transaction information, extra engagement, extra ecommerce, a slice of charges from transactions. “That was always their advantage,” says one regulatory official. “This would create tremendous opportunity and a lot of money for them. But if Facebook was going to be the reason it was very successful, they were also going to be the reason it would fail.”


The Old San Francisco Mint is a neoclassical granite slab of a constructing sitting amid high-rise workplace blocks and upmarket inns near the town’s theatre district. Constructed within the 1860s, the Mint was one of many few buildings that survived the nice quake of 1906 and ensuing fireplace. It is a behemoth of permanence that when held one-third of the nation’s gold reserves; now it’s a venue for company occasions.

It was right here that Marcus selected to host the press launch of his new venture in mid-June 2019. In the interim, Facebook had gone from comparatively under-scrutinised to the black sheep of Silicon Valley, because of repeated scandals, together with the Cambridge Analytica revelations, which stoked considerations about customers’ information privateness. In this gentle, Marcus and Beller had thought it wiser to ask for permission and share their plans publicly. “We took some of the lessons learnt in other jurisdictions and said, we’re gonna do this as we would think a ­regulator would want a company like Facebook to do this,” says one staffer concerned.

After a tour of the vaults, journalists had been referred to as in to a cavernous, high-ceilinged room to observe Marcus give certainly one of his characteristically slick slideshow displays, revealing the plan in full. The Libra check in astrology signifies the scales of justice, he defined. Libre is French without spending a dime. “Freedom, justice, money, that’s all this is about,” he mentioned.

Throwing the launch on the Mint made for ­horrible politics. American politicians had been already fearful a few Facebook cryptocurrency encroaching on the ability of the US greenback. Seeing it launched in a constructing that used to make these ­{dollars} solely exacerbated their considerations. One one that spoke to Zuckerberg concerning the plans in its earliest days says, “It comes back to Zuckerberg’s inability to understand how the world sees Facebook: ‘From the people who ripped your data off, they can now get into your wallet.’”

During a bruising week in July 2019, the extent of the political backlash grew to become clear. First, got here the dreaded Potus tweet. “I am not a fan of Bitcoin and other Cryptocurrencies, which are not money, and whose value is highly volatile and based on thin air,” president Donald Trump wrote on July 11. Four days later, Treasury secretary Steven Mnuchin repeated that message at a press convention, warning: “[Libra] and others have a lot of work to do before they get us comfortable.”

The following day, Marcus addressed a congressional listening to for the primary time. His testimony in entrance of the Senate banking committee was an opportunity to reset, to indicate members of Congress that he was listening to their considerations and that Facebook was prepared to make adjustments to accommodate them.

Marcus had barely settled in his seat — a lot much less spoken — when the onslaught started. ­Sherrod Brown, the gravelly voiced Democratic senator from Ohio, set the tone. “[Facebook] is like a toddler who has gotten his hands on a book of matches,” he mentioned. “Facebook has burned down the house over and over and called every arson a learning experience.” Republican senators had been simply as hostile. “I don’t trust you guys,” mentioned GOP senator Martha McSally. “Instead of cleaning up your house, you are launching into a new business model.”

Marcus blinked slowly from behind his rimless glasses as he soaked up spherical after spherical of criticism. If he believed he was seeing his ardour venture collapse in entrance of his eyes, he gave little signal of it. But many watching from the surface believed that was precisely what was occurring. “The attacks were absolutely bipartisan because both sides agree: you don’t mess with the money,” says David Gerard, creator of Libra Shrugged: How Facebook Tried to Take Over the Money. “This is what happens when the dreams of bitcoin bros meet reality.”


By the late summer season of 2019, sentiment amongst Libra’s backers was that one thing wanted to alter. When the Wall Street Journal reported that Visa, Mastercard and others had been getting chilly ft, Marcus felt compelled to rebut the notion of disharmony between members. “I have no knowledge of ­specific organizations plans to not step up,” he tweeted on October 2, “commitment to the ­mission is more important than anything else”.

The subsequent day, executives from the consortium’s member corporations met within the National Union Building in Washington DC’s Penn ­Quarter. ­According to a number of sources concerned, some members had begun to really feel spooked by the political backlash. Facebook had, they believed, underestimated the scrutiny Libra would draw and had overpromoted members’ involvement. Facebook, in the meantime, wished members to be extra vocal of their assist.

The gathering was notably urgent as a result of Libra backers had been attributable to sign their continued ­assist by signing a so-called declaration of membership. Amid the tensions, some Libra staffers failed to note that representatives from one member — PayPal, the place Marcus had been president — weren’t there. The subsequent day, PayPal introduced it was pulling out, arguing Facebook had not completed sufficient to handle regulators’ considerations. The information blindsided Libra’s high administration.

Things had been going to worsen. Days later, Brown and his Democratic Senate colleague Brian Schatz wrote to Libra’s remaining funds members — Visa, Mastercard and on-line funds processor Stripe — warning them that in the event that they remained a part of the scheme, they might anticipate elevated Congressional scrutiny. “It’s as close to a Sopranos threat as you’ll ever read,” one Libra insider says.

Within a matter of days, Libra misplaced 25 per cent of its members, Visa, Mastercard, Stripe and eBay amongst them. Back in Silicon Valley, Marcus was wounded. He realised that, for his dream to have an opportunity of surviving, he must make main concessions.


For the following 18 months, Marcus did simply that. First, he eliminated himself from the limelight. His tried Washington allure offensive had solely additional lashed Libra to Facebook. Even Zuckerberg acknowledged the issue. “I understand we’re not the ideal messenger right now . . . I’m sure people wish it was anyone but Facebook putting this idea forward,” he informed US lawmakers in 2019. “But there’s a reason we care about this. Facebook is about putting power in people’s hands.”

To underscore its independence, Libra turned to Stuart Levey, the previous Treasury official answerable for the US authorities’s efforts to cease terrorism financing. In May 2020, Levey was made the Swiss non-profit’s new chief government. The 58-year-old had been appointed by George W Bush however had stayed on beneath Barack Obama, making him certainly one of a handful of political appointees to serve each Democratic and Republican presidents. Levey, who friends describe as statesmanlike but additionally vigorous, headed HSBC’s authorized workforce within the intervening years, so was nicely versed in monetary regulation. Libra additionally tapped Steve Bunnell, former chief of the prison division on the US lawyer’s workplace and justice division counsel, to change into its chief authorized officer.

Both hires had been a coup. “The people were really extraordinary, some of the very best,” says Ari Redbord, who was the senior adviser to the Treasury deputy secretary and the under-secretary for ­terrorism and monetary intelligence on the time. “They basically put together the team that ­regulators would want to hear from when they are looking [at] how you’re going to build out a ­compliance programme.”

There was additionally a rebranding. Libra was renamed Diem, whereas Calibra — Facebook’s digital pockets — grew to become Novi. Marcus took a again seat throughout the Libra affiliation to give attention to constructing Novi. Beller left Facebook and joined a enterprise capital agency.

Under Levey’s course, Diem shrunk. To placate European and US regulators, the venture’s scope was narrowed to the creation of a digital foreign money backed one-for-one by the greenback slightly than a basket of currencies and different low-risk property, which some had been involved would possibly problem the dominance of the greenback. A workforce of crypto engineers spanning Europe and Silicon Valley labored feverishly to construct a system to watch transactions for indicators of cash laundering or sanction breaking. They additionally got here up with methods to ban nameless transactions and vet the ­outfits that might construct companies to assist Diem foreign money.


By now, the world was within the pandemic’s grip. Would-be schmoozing changed into Zooms. Diem’s future was being thrashed out over video calls, as regulators bombarded the venture’s management with detailed queries. Some Diem staffers discovered there have been so many officers, they usually didn’t know which companies had been current. Even by authorities requirements, it may very well be tedious work. Redford recollects prolonged calls “going through line by line the very technical compliance programme they were building in response to the Treasury’s requests”.

All of which began to look value it by spring 2021. By then, Levey and the remainder of the senior workforce, together with Marcus, felt assured sufficient to check ­issuing a small quantity of Diem foreign money in addition to trialling a model of the Novi digital pockets. The check can be obtainable to a small group of customers, however the workforce was jubilant on the prospect, based on a number of folks concerned on the time.

Reaching the main milestone required the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority, Finma, to approve Diem’s licence. The software papers had been on the regulatory company’s desk, and Finma had convened a school of greater than 20 regulatory watchdogs from world wide to information it via the method. It simply wanted the ultimate inexperienced gentle from the US Treasury.

It was at this level that the Treasury issued its first devastating “No”. Officials informed Finma and Diem that they had been requesting a brief delay of the pilot. The Biden administration was nonetheless settling in, they mentioned, and wanted time to evaluation the venture. Levey was indignant, satisfied that these weren’t substantive considerations. Dante Disparte, Libra’s head of coverage and a key level man for ­members, stop in frustration.

Levey was not completed but; he felt he may nonetheless reply any lingering considerations the Treasury held. So Diem morphed once more. Levey ­relocated the Swiss-based venture to the US and started working with US-regulated financial institution Silvergate to subject Diem foreign money, an overhaul designed to additional placate regulators. Now, if the US authorities wished to intervene, it may accomplish that because of the regulatory relationship it had with Silvergate. To Levey, and even some throughout the Fed, this gave the impression to be the ultimate lacking piece. Diem executives knowledgeable the Fed and the Treasury that one other launch was scheduled for June 29 2021.

But it was to not be. After Yellen’s intervention, the Fed relayed the message to Silvergate and Diem. In a testy telephone name, the Fed’s basic counsel Mark Van Der Weide informed Levey that the federal government was uncomfortable condoning any venture till it had put a “comprehensive regulatory framework” for stablecoins in place, and he expressed nervousness a few coin with the potential to “massively scale” as Diem would possibly.

According to Diem staffers, one thing appeared off about Van Der Weide’s supply throughout the name. He was stiff, virtually robotic. When they in contrast notes with colleagues at Silvergate, they discovered {that a} name they’d obtained from Van Der Weide had performed out in a suspiciously related manner. They concluded that the official should have been studying from a script; each teams felt slighted. The Fed and the Treasury each declined to remark. “It was a last-minute rug-pulling exercise, the night before the proposed launch date,” says one one that was concerned. Diem’s workforce was blindsided and “immensely fucked off”.

Bruised and annoyed, Levey retaliated utilizing a way that solely has traction in DC: a strongly worded letter. The missive, which has not been beforehand reported and has been seen by the FT, is addressed to Yellen and Powell and is dated July 6 2021. In it, Levey berates regulators for blocking the venture, outlining all of the steps it had taken to appease them. Previous requests to fulfill Yellen and deputy Treasury secretary Wally Adeyemo had been declined “without explanation”, he wrote. Now he was demanding a gathering with each for a chance to be heard. “While Diem continues to welcome engagement and scrutiny, we also deserve fair and equal treatment,” Levey continued. “Stopping a limited, legally permissible pilot while other stablecoins grow unchecked is neither fair nor equitable.” The present establishment would mark a “death knell” for the venture, he added.

The requested conferences by no means materialised. Behind closed doorways, some who labored on the venture argue the episode was extra than simply unfair. Neutral regulators had strung them alongside and had been then swayed by a mix of politics and the pursuits of huge banks, they believed. “It’s kind of like a banana republic,” says one Facebook staffer concerned. “Here you have the Federal Reserve that’s supposed to be an independent central bank for the US government, appointed to set terms that span over the course of presidencies to take politics out of money. It is a shame that politics came into play.”

Even some regulators stay sympathetic to Diem’s plight. “For years, we treated Facebook like we were pulling the wings off a fly, while doing nothing about these others,” says one senior official, citing dozens of different stablecoin tasks that make up the $127bn market. “Not allowing Diem to go ahead was worse than a crime, it was a blunder.”

Inside the US authorities, Levey’s letter didn’t land nicely. The hyperlink to Facebook remained entrance of thoughts. The Treasury division wouldn’t bend to Diem’s timeline, whether or not the demand got here by way of be the earnest visionary Marcus or the seasoned pragmatist Levey. The letter was “like you had a friendship, and it went bad and they were detailing their grievances”, one official scoffs. The particular person provides, “What they were after was always fantastical.” And so Diem entered the ultimate “Hail Mary” section of its doomed existence.


Cameron and Tyler Winkelvoss are the equivalent twin Olympic rowers who knew Zuckerberg at Harvard within the early 2000s. Their feud and lawsuit over the concept for Facebook was memorably fictionalised within the 2010 movie, The Social Network. The go well with was settled for $65mn in 2008 and, within the interim, the Winklevii based Gemini, a crypto trade and stablecoin group, and have become bitcoin billionaires.

After the humiliating Fed rejection (and bow-out from Silvergate) in June, Diem executives had one final contingency: discover one other stablecoin issuer that was as a substitute regulated at a state stage. New York has its personal crypto regulatory regime beneath the attention of the New York Department of Financial Services.

Enter Gemini. Diem had an extended historical past with the crypto firm. When Marcus and Beller had been initially reaching out to potential companions, they’d held talks with Gemini about the way it may be concerned within the initiative — for instance, by itemizing the Diem coin on its trade. But now, based on a number of folks acquainted with the matter, Diem’s management explored working with Gemini to really subject the foreign money. The NY DFS workforce on the time — notably then-superintendent Linda Lacewell — welcomed the tie-up, particulars of which haven’t been beforehand reported.

The irony of Zuckerberg’s firm presumably relying on the Winklevii to behave as white knights was not misplaced on staffers. “The amount of power you are giving up by bringing in Gemini shows how desperate they were,” one authorities official concerned says. But when New York governor Andrew Cuomo, who had been battling allegations of sexual harassment for weeks, resigned, Lacewell went with him. The furtive Gemini plan was scuppered.

Then got here what some insiders deem the ultimate mis-step. Marcus, who had been watching from the sidelines, re-entered the image when he determined to launch a pilot of Facebook’s Novi digital foreign money pockets in October. Instead of utilizing Diem, the trial would depend on Paxos Dollar, a rival cryptocurrency. The transfer was designed to alleviate among the strain on Diem however as a substitute engendered a vicious political response from Congress, which nonetheless noticed the 2 initiatives as inextricably linked.

“All hope was lost,” says one member, when the Treasury put out a report in November on stablecoin issuers “that limit affiliation with commercial entities” with the intention to “address additional concerns about systemic risk and ­concentration of economic power”. Internally, this was learn as a direct message to Facebook.

Diem’s buyers had change into fatigued by the method. Zuckerberg had grown exasperated with adverse information cycles when he wished to give attention to casting the corporate as revolutionary, based on these near him.

At instances, he wished to carry again and wait earlier than attempting to launch the assorted pilots. But ultimately he additionally conceded defeat, alongside Marcus. “Mark is a smart businessman. There’s only so much money you’d throw at it,” says one former senior Meta staffer.

By the tip of the month, Diem started to contemplate pursuing a sale. Where Libra had entered public discourse with a bang, Diem collapsed with a whimper: when Levey delivered the information over Zoom in a mid-December 2021 assembly, the three dozen or so members on the decision fell silent. Marcus had already resigned from Facebook a number of weeks ­earlier. Those near him say he was despondent. “If walls mysteriously keep popping up that you don’t know about,” says one senior Facebook staffer who labored with him, “there’s only so many times you can keep walking down that same path.”


Diem obtained curiosity from a number of US banks, together with Silvergate, which on January 31 purchased its remaining property to pursue its personal stablecoin plans. To the extent it has one, Diem’s lasting legacy could also be that it targeted the eye of regulators on digital foreign money. “It forced regulators and governments to start to educate themselves on the technology and stimulated venture capital investment in other initiatives because there was such a frenzy of focus,” says Lisa Ellis, head funds analyst at funding analysis group MoffettNathanson. Levey declined to remark however offered an announcement studying partly: “What Diem demonstrated is that it’s possible to build an efficient blockchain-based payment system that explicitly prohibits anonymous transactions and includes robust controls to protect consumers and combat crime.”

But Marcus has nonetheless not achieved what he had got down to. “This mission that motivated the team to challenge the unacceptable status quo — against all odds — for a better system, remains as relevant today as it was on the first day of that journey,” Marcus wrote in his assertion to the FT. In a tweet, he mentioned he welcomed “another chapter with a maybe more ‘acceptable’ promoter driving the vision forward” — a concession that Facebook’s model destroyed his imaginative and prescient. “With David Marcus, I sensed a bit of: ‘We will be able to survive on the pure charismatic goodwill that we are bringing with this project,’” says one one that labored with him. “I think they thought good faith would carry the day.”

Facebook is now busy with a brand new grand venture: its plan to construct a metaverse the place billions of individuals may at some point collect as avatars. Novi staffers have been instructed to give attention to what digital foreign money would possibly appear like on this digital world. “What are we supposed to do?” says one former Facebook worker, who laments Diem’s demise. “Sit back and just do ‘likes’? Companies are supposed to grow, we have shareholders to deliver to. That’s the ethos of Silicon Valley.”

Hannah Murphy is an FT tech correspondent. Kiran Stacey is an FT Washington correspondent. Additional reporting by Miles Kruppa and Dave Lee in San Francisco

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