Health and Fitness

The Ultimate Guide to Mushrooms

Shiitake mushrooms

Shelf life: 14 days

The shiitake is native to East Asia, however its reputation has led to its cultivation worldwide. It’s a good supply of vitamin D, niacin, and potassium. Shiitakes are admired for his or her daring, savory, garlicky taste and are so fleshy in texture that some folks could discover them too chewy.

“Cook for over 10 minutes,” recommends Garrone, and so they’ll soften up.

Tree oyster mushrooms

Shelf life: 3 to 4 days

There are a couple of completely different styles of edible oyster mushrooms — together with some which can be pink or yellow — however the tannish-brown tree oyster is the sort you’ll in all probability spot in grocery shops. Velvety-soft in texture, it has a barely sharp taste that blends nicely with hen and fish dishes.

Don’t cook dinner tree oysters for greater than 4 minutes, warns Garrone, or they’ll be overdone.

Cremini mushrooms (aka crimini, brown, child bella)

Shelf life: 7 days

The cremini, an immature portobello mushroom, graces tables worldwide. It’s broadly cultivated, has a light taste and a conventional mushroom texture, and mainly “goes in everything,” Garrone says.

Portobello mushrooms (aka portabello, portabella)

Shelf life: 7 days

The portobello is a full-grown cremini, with a fleshier texture and muskier taste. Not surprisingly, it’s a preferred substitute for meat.

Garrone recommends cooking portobellos entire, as a result of “if you chop them up into small portions, you might as well just get browns.”

Porcini mushrooms (aka cepes, bolete)

Shelf life: 2 days contemporary

Fresh porcini have a restricted seasonal window. They’re harvested within the mountains within the spring and on the coast within the fall — however they are often discovered dried year-round. When eaten inside 2 days of choosing, they’ve a pleasant crunch and are good shaved over a salad. After 2 days, they need to solely be eaten cooked.

Garrone recommends on the lookout for contemporary porcini which can be as agency as doable. They’re apt to be buggy, so verify them fastidiously. When dried, porcini tackle a bolder, nuttier taste.

Maitake mushrooms (aka sheep’s head, ram’s head, hen of the woods)

Shelf life: 10 days

These ruffled brown fungi develop on the base of bushes and might attain — prepared for it? — 50 POUNDS. Maitakes comprise potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium, together with amino acids. Once thought-about the main medicinal mushroom, they’ve gained culinary reputation due to their roasted hen-like taste and barely meaty texture.

In Japanese, “maitake” means “dancing mushroom,” as a result of legend goes that whoever discovered one would dance for pleasure.

“Cook for more than 10 minutes, almost 15,” says Garrone, “and you’ve got yourself a delicious ingredient for risottos or stir-fries.”

Abalone mushrooms

Shelf life: 7 days

A relative of the oyster mushroom (and generally confused with the king trumpet), the abalone mushroom has a silky texture and a gentle, buttery taste — just like its shellfish namesake.

Restaurants sometimes substitute abalone mushrooms for porcini as a result of they’ve fewer bug points. When breaded and fried, porcini can stand in for actual abalone.

Shimeji mushrooms (aka buna-shimeji, bunapi-shimeji, hon shimeji, beech)

Shelf life: 5 days

Shimeji (“shee-MAY-jhee”) refers to about 20 completely different breeds of oyster mushrooms, the most typical of that are brown or white. Because they usually develop on beech bushes, they’re also referred to as beech mushrooms.

With a agency texture and a fragile, shellfish-like taste, shimeji mushrooms are perfect for pairing with any sort of seafood.

Nameko mushrooms

Shelf life: 3 days

These small orange mushrooms are simply recognized by an uncommon gelatinous coating that offers them an amber sheen. When you saute them, the coating additionally acts as thickener for sauces or stews.

Namekos have a candy, woodsy taste and a silky, velvety texture. They’re standard in Japan, the place they’re historically added to miso soup. Garrone recommends merely sauteing them with soy sauce and serving them over rice.

Pioppini mushrooms

Shelf life: 7 days

A member of the shimeji household, pioppini mushrooms have a taste just like porcini however are extra peppery. Their agency texture makes them addition to a stir-fry — you should utilize the entire mushroom, stem and all.

Garrone says the pioppini has grow to be many individuals’s go-to mushroom as a result of it’s flavorful however comparatively cheap.

King trumpet mushrooms (aka French horn, king oyster)

Shelf life: 10 days

In the identical household because the oyster mushroom, the king trumpet is bigger and denser. Its buttery, candy taste makes it a sensible choice for grilling and as an addition to stews. It’s an “all-around good mushroom,” Garrone says.

Morel mushrooms (aka land fish)

Shelf life: 5 days

This springtime mushroom is extremely prized for its earthy, smoky taste and lightweight, veal-like texture. Because it’s so sturdy in taste, the morel works nicely with beef and in wealthy gravies. One standard contemporary preparation is to flour and fry morels.

Chanterelle mushrooms

Shelf life: 10 days

“Chanterelle” refers to a household of mushrooms, together with the golden, yellowfoot, and white chanterelle and the black trumpet mushroom.

In the United States, chanterelles are in season in the course of the fall, however Garrone says they’re obtainable 10 months out of the yr worldwide (so you may have likelihood of discovering them any time). With a agency texture and a delicate taste that includes peppery apricot notes, they’re nice in cream sauces.

Black trumpet mushrooms

Shelf life: 4 to 10 days, relying on moisture degree

Garrone describes the feel of black trumpets as “very slight, almost like they’re not really there,” however the mushrooms’ fragrant, cheese-like taste makes up for his or her wispy texture. Chop them finely and add them to eggs, stews, or something that wants a daring taste pickup.

Black trumpets are harvested in late fall and into winter throughout the United States.

Lobster mushrooms

Shelf life: 7 days

The lobster mushroom will get its distinctive pink shade from a powdery parasitic fungus that grows on its floor — however don’t let that sway you! Its walnut-meat-like texture and delicate seafood taste have made it more and more standard.

Lobster mushrooms are higher contemporary than dried, and the perfect time to seek out them within the United States is September. Check them fastidiously for bugs.

Garrone recommends brushing lobster ’shrooms with olive oil and garlic for grilling or utilizing them as a plant-based substitute in lobster bisque.

Cauliflower mushrooms

Shelf life: 7 days

Picked within the late spring to early fall in Oregon and Washington, cauliflower mushrooms develop in clusters that may weigh as a lot as 35 kilos. They have the feel of egg noodles and a wet, lemon-zest taste and can be utilized as a noodle substitute.

Garrone recommends chopping and sauteing them as a facet dish with herbs and cream.

Look for specimens which can be as white as doable, in clusters the scale of a cauliflower head.

Yellowfoot chanterelle mushrooms

Shelf life: 4 days

A real winter mushroom, the yellowfoot is hunted for its earthy, woodsy taste. Its delicate texture breaks down simply in sauces, and it’s often paired with veal, pork, or sport akin to venison, rabbit, duck, or quail.

Fairy ring mushrooms

Shelf life: 1 yr dried

This fall mushroom is imported from Europe and might be discovered dried year-round. Its cashew-like taste makes it superb for risottos and cream sauces. Garrone additionally recommends it with fish. (We’re dreaming of an herbed halibut with pecans and fairy ring mushrooms … simply sayin’.)

The dried type of the mushroom has an intense taste, so use just a bit bit.

Candy cap mushrooms

Shelf life: 2 to three days contemporary, 1 yr dried

Mushrooms for dessert? You guess. Generally discovered solely dried (or generally contemporary in December or January in U.S. markets), the sweet cap is prized for its sweetness. It has a particular maple scent and taste that go nicely in shortbread or cheesecake. In powdered kind, it may be added to pancake batter as a diabetes-friendly sweetener.

Candy caps might be costly, however half an oz. is sufficient for a gallon of ice cream, says Garrone.

Matsutake mushrooms (aka pine mushrooms)

Shelf life: 3 to 14 days, relying on the standard

Extremely standard in Japan, matsutakes are greatest contemporary and might promote for nicely over $100 per pound. In the States, they develop within the fall. Garrone describes the feel as “a little fibrous” and the flavour as “cinnamon pine.”

Look for a specimen that’s nonetheless closed (one in which you’ll be able to’t see the gills). Matsutakes develop in sooty soil, in order that they’ll often want lots of cleansing with a moist paper towel. They’re fragrant and historically served in miso soup or rice dishes.

Black truffles

Shelf life: 4 days (the aromatics will likely be misplaced after that)

Valued for his or her fragrant qualities and generally referred to as “the diamond of the kitchen,” truffles range in style and odor, relying on their age and supply. They’re typically harvested in northern Italy, Spain, France, and Oregon.

Flavors can vary from earthy to inexperienced apple to savory garlic, whereas costs can vary from $400 to $1,600 per pound. Look for very agency specimens.

Usually shaved over heat meals, truffles may infuse meals — for instance, when saved with eggs, they’ll taste the eggs.

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